中國哲學、東方宗教與生態永續- 當代宗教生態學的新課題

Written by Mark Jenn-Chyun Shieh 謝鎮群 Wednesday, 24 October 2018 10:10
摘要      環境和生態危機的克服,需要的不只是知識和技術,還需要信念、規範和實踐,並將人類與物種和自然重新連結。啟蒙以來的現代化思維獨尊人類主體性,割裂人與自然世界整體之關聯。中國哲學和東方宗教不具此一主客分立、獨尊人類主體(主宰性)的特性。而原住民傳統宗教和文化更不把環境和自然只視為人類可運用、可宰制的資源,而是肯定其為人類的來源或根源。中國哲學,儒、釋、道都具備完整的宇宙論和倫理學,並具實踐特性,重力行,又對東方文化影響甚鉅。故宗教生態學會將之視為重要資產,藉以探討其對永續生態的可能貢獻。 宗教生態學在台灣雖不普遍,但台灣具相當基礎與實力。本文以中文撰寫,目的在於拋磚引玉。盼學界及各界能多有著力,在此一課題上做出生態永續的全球性貢獻。     背景      生態與環境的危機已是全球性的共同難題。快速的工業化、自然資源的濫採和濫用、過度的消費、經濟模式的偏頗、分配的不公義、自我中心和意識型態的高舉、以及暴增的人口等,都是環環相扣的,造成人類和其他物種賴以生存的環境和生態出現災難的原因。此一災難性的課題,也是跨學科、跨領域共同關注並尋求出路的挑戰。在不同的理論中,有一些共同的訝異。例如: 科技和科學將把人類文明帶往何處,現代化的美麗願景而今安在,世界和人類的未來如何 (Grim & Tucker, 2014; Norgaard, 2002; Watling, 2009)?     宗教生態學的發展      環境和生態的危機並非單由科學和科技即可處理,還涉及價值、信念、社會制度、經濟模式、分配正義、生存型態和生活方式等面向。對於此危機的理解、處理和克服,有一整合式的趨勢: 即跨領域、跨學科的回到人類和物種賴以生存的整體環境,地球和宇宙。探討的不只是現象(災難)的處理與對治,還探究其源由。在此一發展趨勢中,宗教也是一股被重視,以及推動此一趨勢的重要力量來源。        自廿世紀末起,有不少來自科學、經濟、公共政策和宗教研究背景的學者,共同致力於此一課題的探討和處理,強調對話、合作及夥伴關係。1992年5月,有150位美國的神學家和科學家齊聚華府,為環境尋求出路。其論述基礎在於,科學和宗教的結合,能為地球環境危機的處理,做出根本性的重大貢獻 (Norgaard, 2002)。哈佛大學世界宗教研究中心,在1996到1998年間辦理了系列的跨領域會議(分為10個部分)。此一整合性工作,在1998年10月,聯合國所舉辦的宗教與生態論壇 (Forum on Religion and Ecology) 達到高峯 (Grim & Tucker, 2014)。會議中決定要繼續在哈佛所推動的工作,而後有關宗教與生態的出版持續增加,國際組織陸續成立或擴充。宗教與生態論壇移到耶魯大學,耶魯大學「森林暨環境學院」和「神學院」也共同設立「宗教與生態」的研究所。耶魯大學結合科學和宗教的課程 Journey of the Universe,其教材獲得 Emmy Award 2012。普林斯頓大學在1994年強化其原有的環境研究,進一步設立跨領域的環境研究所,從事教學、研究和推廣的工作。早在1991年人文即被納入其環境研究,在2000至2006年間更設立環境人文中心。哈佛大學環境中心雖以科學和科技探討為主軸,近年也強調與人文的跨域合作。     啟蒙傳統的迷思和限制      生態和環境危機並非突發事件,而是現代化發展的一個不幸的結果。當代文明的傲人成果,如民主和科學,其發展源頭可上推至啟蒙運動,甚或文藝復興和古希臘時期。這是一個突顯理性、強調人的主體性、與啟示和神權做區隔,進而以人為世界中心的思想源流。在此一智性源流中牛頓開啟了機械性的世界觀,以自然為同質性的物質,依照可預測的律則運作 (Watling, 2009)。經由17世紀科學的興盛,18世紀的啟蒙運動,19世紀的工業革命,20世紀的科技發展和全球化,以至於發展出強勢的現代性或啟蒙的思維模式與心態 (Ibid.)。        這是以人為中心的世界觀,將世界對象化,並以機械性的模式認識世界。強調理性的優位性,以及科技和經濟的進步。認為人的理性可以探求和證成真理,也是真理的標準。人依靠理性可以認識世界(和自我),運用世界資源。科學和科技是建設人間世的最佳憑藉,世界只是可用的資源。自然也被經濟性的理解成商品,可管理、可使用 (Ibid.)。人作為世界的主宰,對此世界人可以無止盡的開採和運用,以及濫用和破壞自然。        啟蒙運動以來,西方思潮及文化所建立的是人自身的絕對的主體性,主體的自由是一種解放的自由,不受羈絆的自由,其內容是自主決定。在社會、政治和經濟面向,獨立的個體是這些活動的最終基礎。人可自由的追求自我的人生目標,並自主的與他人建立社會和契約。即以影響迄今的洛克的基本人權為例,生命、自由和私有財產都只是對人而言。私有財產最根本的正當性來自人對這世界的勞力付出,世界是豐富的資源待人開採運用,人自己賦予自己主宰世界的特權。雖然基本人權的根據可上推至天(上帝),而有所謂的天賦人權,但在獨尊人類主體和理性,以及貶抑宗教教義,或以人為中心來解釋宗教信仰後,也去除了人對世界和其他物種的道德責任和適當關係的指引。天賦人權雖然是用以保障每一個體,但也是人凌駕於世界的特權。民主政治發展至今,雖已是世界的主流,但也只限於具主體性的人類,具一定條件的人,例如公民 (Schmitt, 1988)。廿世紀末最具影響力的政治哲學家羅爾士,其正義原則是處理政治社會資源分配的最基本原則(Rawls, 1971, 1993),其影響迄今而不隧。但其公平、正義並不及於符合一定條件的人以外的物種和世界,也只是保護人對世界的特權。        此一獨尊人類主體(主宰)的思維型態,雖源自古希臘,卻在啟蒙運動時期開啟了高峯。另一與之相對的,被啟蒙理性所排除及貶抑的宗教(一神論),竟也是建立人為世界中心及主宰的決定性因素。Lynn White (1967) 即論述,基督教信仰使得科學和科技與自然相對立。在創世紀中明載,只有人是依上帝的形象所造,被賦予管理這世界的使命與職責。人也分享了上帝與世界的區隔,以及對被造物的控制 (Norgaard, 2002)。亦即,源自古希臘的理性傳統和希伯來的一神論傳統,都型塑了人為世界中心及主宰的思維和存在方式。不只西方學界有此反省,中國哲學界的前輩如牟宗三(1983),即論述此一東西文化的根源性差異。        在現代化的發展過程中,所謂的進步和幸福,是由工業生產和消費以及物質來測量 (Watling, 2009)。因著人的優位性,以及快速發展的科學及科技的助益下,追求成長和進步的同時,卻也罔顧其對環境的嚴重破壞(Norgaard, 2006)。不只是對生態的破壞,還包括對異文化的侵略和殖民,以及區域間的不公義。例如強勢國家和財團於開發中國家掠取資源,卻將被破壞的生態和環境以及廢棄物留在當地。經濟發展和生態的保護間存在對立和衝突 (Norgaard, 2006)。然而,地球是一整體,這些區域性的生態及環境惡化,終究呈現出全球的生態及環境危機。        面對環境和生態的危機時,即或有來自於各領域的努力,以試圖減緩或防止持續惡化。但啟蒙以來的理性思維,缺少對人以外的物種和自然界的整全的理解和道德義務。在以人為中心 (Anthropocentric)、人凌駕於物、人的利益計算為主的思維模式下,人對自然的破壞並不意外,環境和生態的持續惡化也不偶然 (Dawe & Ryan, 2003; Norgaard,…

A Year of Weaving in Taiwan

Written by Jennifer Huang 黃謙恕 Tuesday, 09 October 2018 13:00
       It is astonishing to me how quickly these nine months have gone by in Taiwan. This semester in the remote hills of Tainan, where I am a Visiting Artist at Tainan National University of the Arts, my spring has been more introspective, and I am recoiling inwards to access how to best create a work of art in response to my research of indigenous Atayal weaving in the fall, when I was hosted by the Ethnology department at National Chengchi University in Taipei. I have been fearful of being unable to adequately respect and promote the revered…

Inside Taiwan's Sunflower Movement

Written by Ian Rowen 伊恩 Thursday, 02 August 2018 15:15
       “Say goodbye to Taiwan,” wrote political scientist John Mearsheimer in a widely read article in the March-April 2014 issue of The National Interest.1 Threatened by China's rising economic might and abandoned by a weakening United States, one of Asia's most vibrant democracies was facing, in his “realist” analysis, an almost inevitable annexation via economic if not military force. “Time,” he wrote, “is running out for the little island coveted by its gigantic, growing neighbor.” But only days after publication, on March 18, activists and armchair analysts alike said hello to a new reality.        That evening, the…
     I spent my Fulbright year engaged in ethnographic research on Taiwan’s indigenous communities and their practices, and the ways in which these practices are being addressed under Taiwan law. This year has been a year of returns for me. My family lived in southeastern Taiwan when I was young boy. At that time, the area in which we resided had a high concentration of indigenous peoples, and members of the Amis, Puyuma, and Paiwan tribes were some of our closest friends and neighbors. As a result, this year has been an opportunity for me to return to an…

Putting Memory to Work: The Ming Court and the Legacy of the Mongol Empire

Written by David M. Robinson 魯大維 Wednesday, 25 July 2018 10:18
       Empires create legacies that successors use in diverse ways.  My project explores the court of China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) on a broad Eurasian stage.  It focuses on a moment when much of Eurasia shared a common reference point, the Mongol empire.  In the thirteenth century, the Mongols created the greatest land empire in history; their courts in China, Persia, and southern Russia were centers of wealth, learning, power, religion, and lavish spectacle. Scholars have rightly stressed the Mongol empire’s lasting impact on later ages, drawing attention to the emergence of an early modern global economy, the rise…

Everyday Life on Yongkang Jie

Written by Kay Duffy 杜圭 Wednesday, 25 July 2018 09:37
     In 2016-2017, I conducted research for my dissertation on early medieval Chinese literature in Taipei as a Fulbright Fellow. Upon arriving in Taipei in early September, my husband and I set to work trying to find a home for the year. Over the summer, I had spent hours “researching” life in Taipei (reading food blogs), but our main concern upon arrival was finding a place accessible to our respective research institutions, National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica. After a few disheartening weeks sifting through online apartment listings, we found a place near Yongkang Jie, a street in Da’an…

Contents and Orientations of Chinese Nationalist Discourse

Written by Daniel Glockler 葛樂德 Tuesday, 14 November 2017 14:26
       Chinese nationalism continues to be an important but inadequately understood phenomenon. On the one hand, it is evident that nationhood and national identity are deeply embedded in Chinese society. Polling conducted in 2005 and 2010 among the publics of thirteen Asian countries ranked PRC citizens first in positive feelings towards their nation.1 This unusually strong sense of national pride appears to be supported by a particularly nation-oriented worldview. In but one example, a 2008 survey showed that 84.3 percent of Chinese respondents agreed with the assertion, “Your country should pursue its national interest even if it could harm…

Visiting a Buddhist Statue Factory in Taiwan

Written by Kevin Buckelew 呂凱文 Thursday, 02 November 2017 11:53
       During my 2016–17 Fulbright fellowship in Taiwan, I had the opportunity to visit the Taoyuan factory of Sheng Kuang 聖光 (Sacred Radiance), a leading manufacturer of Buddhist statuary whose finished work can be found in temples and sacred sites across Taiwan and other parts of Asia. While the company produces Buddhist images of every size, some of their statues are remarkably large, including the Ushiku Daibutsu 牛久大仏 in Japan, which at 390 feet is (as of this writing) the third-tallest statue in the world. They have also produced large-scale statues for temples in Taiwan, such as the 236-foot tall…

The Native Speaker: A Category in Need of Rupture

Written by Gina Elia 艾真 Friday, 06 October 2017 16:56
           In my language, we say “I love you” a lot.       Think about that sentence for a minute. Really think about it. Does it strike you as odd? I speak of my native language, which happens to be English, as though it belongs to me.  But how can something as massive and unruly as a language belong to anybody? The largest category of words in almost any language is technical—specialized jargon unknown to the majority of native speakers. Languages are created by human beings, but they quickly grow into giant, complex webs of syntax…

Wild, Tame, and In-Between: Traditional Agricultural Knowledge of Taiwan Indigenous People

Written by Pei-Lin Yu 余琲琳 Wednesday, 23 August 2017 12:30
  Introduction and Background      Many of us would agree that Senator J. William Fulbright’s vision of “a world with a little more knowledge and a little less conflict” will feature healthy ecosystems, appreciation of cultural diversity, and of course, delicious food. However, the world has been moving in the wrong direction over the past century. Today, 75% of the world’s plant food is made up of only 12 species. As of 2010, three (rice, maize, and wheat) provided nearly 60 percent of the calories and proteins that humans derive from plants (F.A.O 2010, 1999) and this trend continues…
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