Fredy González: Oppose the Qing, Restore the Ming: The Hong Men Fraternal Organization’s Malleable Nationalism

What does “Oppose the Qing and Restore the Ming”” mean in the mid-twentieth century? Fredy González analyzes the slogan in the context of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45) and the Cold War (1945-91) to understand the political philosophy of the Hong Men (Triad) organizations.

Fredy González is an assistant professor of history at the University of Colorado Boulder. He is the author of Paisanos Chinos: Transpacific Politics among Chinese Immigrants in Mexico, published this year.

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